Primary Research Manuscripts (since 2017)
Barton KE, Zell-Baran LM, DeWitt JC, Brindley S, McDonough CA, Higgins CP, Adgate JL, and Starling AP. 2022. Cross-sectional associations between serum PFASs and inflammatory biomarkers in a population exposed to AFFF-contaminated drinking water. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 240:113905.
Woodlief T, Vance S, Hu Q, DeWitt J. 2021. Immunotoxicity of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Insights into short-chain PFAS exposure. Toxics. 9:100.
Zhou J, Baumann K, Mead RN, Skrabal SA, Kieber RJ, Avery GB, Shimizu M, DeWitt JC, Sun M, Vance SA, Bodnar W, Zhang Z. 2021. PFOS dominates PFAS composition in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected across North Carolina nearly 20 years after the end of its US production. Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts. 23:580-587.
Jiang Q, Xu X, DeWitt JC, Zheng Y. 2021. Using chicken embryo as a powerful tool in assessment of developmental cardiotoxicities. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 21:doi: 10.3791/62189.
McDonough C, Ward C, Hu Q, Vance S, Higgins C, DeWitt J. 2020. Immunotoxicity of an electrochemically fluorinated aqueous film-forming foam. Toxicological Sciences, 178:104-114.
vonderEmbse A, Gomez I, Hu Q, DeWitt J. 2020. Postnatal toxicant exposure in 3xTgAD mice promotes detrimental, sex-dependent NeuroimmiR profiles for microglia:neuron crosstalk. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation. 7:345-359.
Kotlarz N, McCord J, Collier D, Lea CS, Strynar M, Lindstrom AB, Wilkie AA, Islam JY, Matney K, Tarte P, Polera ME, Burdette K, DeWitt J, May K, Smart RC, Knappe DRU, Hoppin JA. 2020. Poorly understood PFAS generated as byproducts of fluorochemical manufacturing are in the blood of children and adults living in Wilmington, North Carolina. Environmental Health Perspectives. DOI: 10.1289/EHP6837.
McDonough C, Choyke S, Ferguson PL, DeWitt J, Higgins C. 2020. Bioaccumulation of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in mice dosed with an aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF). 2020. Environmental Science & Technology. 54:5700-5709.
vonderEmbse AN, Hu Q, DeWitt JC. 2019. Dysfunctional microglia:neuron interactions with significant female bias in a developmental gene x environment rodent model of Alzheimer’s disease. International Immunopharmacology. 71:241-250.
Keil DE, Buck B, Goossens D, McLaurin B, Murphy L, Leetham-Spencer M, Teng Y, Pollard J, Gerads R, and DeWitt JC. 2018. Nevada desert dust with heavy metals suppresses IgM antibody production. Toxicology Reports. 5:258-269.
vonderEmbse AN, Hu Q, and DeWitt JC. 2017. Developmental toxicant exposure in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease induces differential sex-associated microglial activation and increased susceptibility to amyloid accumulation. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. 2:1-9.
Meadows JR, Parker C, Gilbert KM, Blossom SJ, and DeWitt JC. 2017. A single dose of trichloroethylene given during development does not substantially alter markers of neuroinflammation in brains of adult mice. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 14:95-102.
DeWitt JC, Buck BJ, Goossens D, Teng Y, Pollard J, McLaurin B, Gerads R, and DE Keil. 2017. Health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust collected from active drainage surfaces (Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV). Toxicology Reports. 4:19-31.
Rushing BR, Hu Q, Franklin JN, McMahen R, Dagnino S, Higgins CP, Strynar MJ, and DeWitt JC. 2017. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate in C57BL/6 mice. Toxicological Sciences. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw251.
Keil DE, Buck B, Goossens D, Teng Y, Pollard J, McLaurin B, Gerads R, DeWitt JC. 2016. Health effects from exposure to atmospheric mineral dust near Las Vegas, NV, USA. Toxicology Reports. 3:785-795.
Jusko TA, Oktapoda M, Murinová LP, Babjaková J, Verner M-A, DeWitt JC, Babinská, Thevenet-Morrison K, Conka K, Drobná B, Thurston SW, Lawrence BP, Dozier AM, Jarvinene-Seppo KM, Patayová H, Trnovec T, Legler J, Hertz-Picciotto I, and Lamoree MH. 2016. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum. Environmental Science & Technology. 50:7152-7162.
DeWitt JC, Buck B, Goossens D, Hu Q, Chow R, David W, Young S, Teng Y, Leetham-Spencer M, Murphy L, Pollard J, McLaurin B, Gerads R, and Keil D. 2016. Health effects following subacute exposure to dusts from arsenic-rich sediment at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 304:79-89.
Leetham M, DeWitt J, Buck B, Goossens D, Teng Y, Pollard J, McLaurin B, Gerads R, and Keil D. 2016. Oxidative stress and lung pathology following geogenic dust exposure. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 36:1276-1283.
Keil D, Buck B, Goossens D, Teng Y, Spencer M, Murphy L, Pollard J, Eggers M, Gerards R, and DeWitt J. 2016. Immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological profile of health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust from sand dunes at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 291:1-12.
DeWitt JC, Williams W, Creech NJ, and RW Luebke. 2016. Suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses in mice exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid: Role of PPARa and B cell targeting. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 13:38-45.
Jiang Q, Ma W, Wu J, Wingard CJ, and DeWitt JC. 2016. Perfluorooctanoic acid-induced toxicity in primary cultures of chicken embryo cardiomyocytes. Environmental Toxicology. 31:1580-1590.
Khalil N, Chen A, Lee M, Czerwinski SA, Ebert JR, DeWitt JC, and Kannan K. 2016. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances, bone mineral density, and osteoporosis in the US population in NHANES 2009-2010. Environmental Health Perspectives. 124:81-87.
Wambaugh JF, Setzer W, Pitruzzello AM, Liu J, Reif D, Kleinstreuer N, Ching N, Wang Y, Sipes N, Martin M, Das K, DeWitt J, Strynar M, Judson R, Houck K, and Lau C. 2013. Dosimetric anchoring of in vivo and in vitro studies for perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate. Toxicological Sciences. 136:308-327.
Jiang Q, Lust R, and DeWitt JC. 2013. Perflurooctanoic acid induced-developmental cardiotoxicity: Are peroxisome proliferator activated receptor a (PPARa) and bone morphorgenic protein 2 (BMP2) pathways involved? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A. 76:635-650.
Hu Q, Franklin JN, Bryan I, Morris E, Wood A, and DeWitt JC. 2012. Does developmental exposure to perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) induce immunopathologies commonly observed in neurodevelopmental disorders? NeuroToxicology. 33:1491-1498.
Jiang Q, LustR, Strynar MJ, and DeWittJC. 2012. Perflurooctanoic acid induces developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos and hatchlings. Toxicology. 293:97-106.
Fair PA, Stavros H-C, Mollenhauer MAM, DeWitt JC, Henry N, Kannan K, Mitchum G, Y SH, Bossart GD, Keil DE, and Peden-Adams MM. 2012. Immune function in female B6C3F1 mice is modulated by DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 9:96-107.
Hu Q, Strynar MJ, and DeWitt JC. 2010. Are developmentally exposed C57BL/6 mice insensitive to suppression of TDAR by PFOA? Journal of Immunotoxicology. 7:344-349.
DeWitt JC, Copeland CB, and Luebke RW. 2009. Suppression of humoral immunity by perfluorooctanoic acid is independent of elevated serum corticosterone concentration in mice. Toxicological Sciences. 109:106-112.
Peden-Adams MM, Stuckey JE, Gaworecki K, Berger-Ritchie J, Bryant K, Jodice PG, Scott TR, Boone S, McGuinn WD, DeWitt JC, and Keil DE. 2009. Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Reproductive Toxicology. 27:307-318.
Whalen MM, DeWitt JC, Luebke RW. 2008. Serum supplementation modulates the effects of dibutyltin on human natural killer cell function. Toxicological Sciences. 104:312-319.
DeWitt JC, Copeland CB, Strynar MJ, and Luebke RW. 2008. Perflurooctanoic acid-induced immunomodulation in adult C57BL/6J or C57BL/6N female mice. Environmental Health Perspectives. 116:644-650.
DeWitt JC, Copeland CB, and Luebke RW. 2008. An organotin mixture found in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe is not immunotoxic to adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A. 71:276-282.
DeWitt JC, Copeland CB, and Luebke RW. 2007. Immune function is not impaired in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to dimethyltin dichloride (DMTC) during development or adulthood. Toxicology. 232:303-310.
Lim J, DeWitt JC, Sanders RA, Watkins JB III, and Henshel DS. 2007. Suppression of endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-Induced oxidative stress in chicken liver during development. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 52:590-595.
DeWitt JC, Copeland CB, and Luebke RW. 2006. Developmental exposure to 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg of dibutyltin dichloride does not impair immune function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 3:245-252.
DeWitt JC, Millsap DS, Yeager RL, Heise SS, Sparks DW, and Henshel, DS. 2006. External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 25:541-551.
DeWitt JC, Copeland CB, and Luebke RW. 2005. Immune responses in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to dibutyltin dichloride in drinking water as adults. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 2:151-160.
DeWitt JC, Meyer EB, and Henshel DS. 2005. Environmental toxicity studies using chickens as surrogates for wildlife: Effects of vehicle volume. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 48:260-269.
DeWitt JC, Meyer EB, Watkins JB, and Henshel DS. 2005. Environmental toxicity studies using chickens as surrogates for wildlife: Effects of day of injection. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 48:270-277.
Stanton B, DeWitt J, Henshel D, Watkins S, and Lasley B. 2003. Fatty acid metabolism in neonatal chickens (Gallus domesticus) treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) in ovo. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C – Pharmacology and Toxicology, 136(1):73-84.
Henshel DS, DeWitt JC, and Troutman, A. 2002. Using chicken embryos for teratology studies. In: Current Protocols in Toxicology (M.D. Maines, L.G. Costa, E. Hodgson, D.J. Reed, and I.G. Sipes, Eds.), Supplement 14, pp. 13.4.1-13.4.19.
Henshel DS, Martin JW and DeWitt JC. 1997. Brain asymmetry as a potential biomarker for developmental TCDD intoxication: A dose-response study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105:718-725.
Henshel DS, Martin JW, Norstrom RJ, Elliot J, Cheng KM and DeWitt JC. 1997. Morphometric brain abnormalities in double-crested cormorant chicks exposed to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 23:11-26.
Walker ED, Smith TW, DeWitt J, Beaudo DC, McLean RG. 1994. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in host-seeking ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a Lyme disease endemic area in northern Michigan. Journal of Medical Entomology. 31(4):524-8.
Reviews/Commentaries (since 2017)
Ducatman A, LaPier J, Fuoco R, DeWitt JC. 2022. Official health communications are failing PFAS-contaminated communities. Environmental Health. 21:51.
McDonough C, Wenting L, Bischel H, DeSilva A, and DeWitt J. 2022. Widening the lens on PFASs: Direct human exposure on perfluoroalkyl precursors (pre-PFAAs). Environmental Science and Technology. 17:6004-6013.
Glüge J, London R, Cousins IT, DeWitt J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Ng CA, Patton S, Trier X, Wang Z, and Scheringer M. 2021. Information requirements under the essential-use concept: PFAS case studies. Environmental Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03732.
Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Glüge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Ng CA, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, and Wang Z. 2021. Finding essentiality feasible: Common questions and misinterpretations concerning the “essential use” concept. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. 23:1079-1087.
Ng C, Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Glüge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, and Wang Z. 2021. Addressing urgent questions for PFAS in the 21st century. Environmental Science & Technology. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03386.
Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Lohmann R, Glüge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Ng CA, Scheringer M, Wang Z. 2020. The high persistence of PFAS is sufficient for their management as a chemical class. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 22:2307-2312.
Lohman R, Cousins I, DeWitt J, Glüge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lindstrom A, Miller M, Ng C, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, Wang Z. 2020. Are fluoropolymers really of low concern for human and environmental health and separate from other PFAS? Environmental Science & Technology, 54:12820-12828.
Glüge J, Scheringer S, Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lindstrom AB, Lohmann R, Ng CA, Trier X, Wang Z. 2020. An overview of the uses of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Accepted by Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 22:2345-2373.
Fenton SE, Ducatman A, Boobis A, DeWitt JC, Lau C, Ng C, Smith JS, and Roberts SM. 2020. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance toxicity and human health review: Current state of knowledge and strategies for informing future research. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4890.
Kwiatkowski C, Andrews D, Birnbaum L, Bruton T, DeWitt J, Knappe D, Maffini M, Miller M, Pelch K, Reade A, Soehl A, Trier X, Venier M, Wagner C, Wang Z, and Blum A. 2020. The scientific basis for managing PFAS as a chemical class. Environmental Science and Technology Letters. DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00255.
Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Glüge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Ng CA, Scheringer M, Vierke L, and Wang Z. 2020. Strategies for grouping per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to protect human and environmental health. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. DOI: 10.1039/d0em00147c.
Cousins IT, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Ng CA, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, Vierke L, Wang Z, DeWitt JC. 2019. The concept of essential use for determining when uses of PFASs can be phased out. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. 21:1803-1815.
DeWitt JC, Blossom SJ, and Schaider L. 2019. Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances leads to immunotoxicity: Epidemiological and toxicological evidence. Accepted to the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (invited).
Hopkins ZR, Sun M, DeWitt JC, and Knappe DRU. 2018. New drinking water contaminants: GenX and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl ether acids. Journal AWWA.
DeWitt JC and Patisaul HB. 2018. Endocrine disruptors and the developing immune system. Current Opinion in Toxicology. 10:31-36.
Ritscher A, Wang Z, Scheringer M, Boucher JM, Ahrens L, Berger U, et al. 2018. Zürich statement on future actions on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Environmental Health Perspectives. 126: https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4158.
Wang Z, DeWitt JC, Higgins CP, and Cousins IT. 2017. A never-ending story of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)? Environmental Science and Technology. 51:2508-2518.
Hessel EVS, Ezendam J, van Broekhuizen FA, Hakkert B, DeWitt JC, Granum B, Guzylack L, Lawrence BP, Penninks A, Rooney AA, Piersma AH, and van Loveren H. 2016. Assessment of recent developmental immunotoxicity studies with bisphenol A in the context of the 2015 EFSA t-TDI. Reproductive Toxicology. 65:448-456.
Corsini E, Luebke RW, Germolec DR, and DeWitt JC. 2014. Perfluorinated compounds: emerging POPs with potential immunotoxicity. Toxicology Letters, 230:263-270.
DeWitt J, Peden-Adams M, Keller J, and Germolec D. 2012. The immunotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds: Recent developments. Toxicologic Pathology, 40:300-311.
DeWitt J, Peden-Adams M, Keil D, and Dietert R. 2012. Current status of developmental immunotoxicity: Early-life patterns and testing. Toxicologic Pathology, 40:230-236.
Dietert RR, Dietert J, and DeWitt JC. 2011. Environmental risk factors for autism. Emerging Health Threats Journal (invited review). 4:7111.
Dietert RR, DeWitt JC, Germolec DR, and Zelikoff JT. 2010. Breaking patterns of environmentally influenced disease for health risk reduction: Immune perspectives. Environmental Health Perspectives 118:1091-1099.
DeWitt JC, Shnyra A, Badr MZ, Loveless SE, Hoban D, Frame SR, Cunard R, Anderson SE, Meade BJ, Peden-Adams MM, Luebke RW, and Luster MI. 2009. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 39:76-94.
Book Chapters (since 2017)
vonderEmbse AN and DeWitt JC. 2018. Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) testing: Current recommendations and the future of DIT testing. In: Immunotoxicity Testing: Methods and Protocols (DeWitt JC, Rockwell CE, and Bowman CC, eds), Methods in Molecular Biology Series. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
Meadows JR, DeWitt JC, and Rooney AA. 2018. Ecoimmunotoxicology – An overview. In: Comprehensive Toxicology (McQueen CA, ed) 3rd edition. Elsevier Ltd., Oxford.
DeWitt JC and Keil DE. 2017. Current issues in developmental immunotoxicity. In: Immunopathology in Toxicology and Drug Development (Parker G.A, ed). Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
DeWitt JC, Germolec DR, Luebke RW, and Johnson, VJ. 2016. Associating changes in the immune system with clinical diseases for interpretation of risk assessment. In: Current Protocols in Toxicology. 67:18.1.1-18.1.22.
DeWitt JC, Peden-Adams MM, and Keil DE. 2015. Immunotoxic effects of perfluoroalkylated compounds: Mechanisms of action. In: Molecular Immunotoxicology (Corsini E and van Loveren H, eds). Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co., Weinheim.
DeWitt JC and Dietert RR. 2014. Immunotoxicity in autism spectrum disorders. In: The Comprehensive Guide to Autism (Patel VB, Martin CR, Preedy V, and Preedy VR, eds). Springer Reference, New York, NY.
Dietert RR, DeWitt JC, and Luebke RW. 2012. Reducing the prevalence of immune-based chronic disease. In: Immunotoxicity, Immune Dysfunction, and Chronic Diseases (Dietert RR and Luebke RW, eds), Molecular and Integrative Toxicology, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. pp 419-440.
DeWitt J, Peden-Adams M, Keil D, and Dietert R. 2012. Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT): Assays for evaluating effects of exogenous agents on development of the immune system. In: Current Protocols in Toxicology. Chapter 18: Unit 18.15.
Luebke RW, DeWitt JC, Germolec DR, Salazar KD, and Kerkvliet NI. 2012. Immunomodulation by persistent organic pollutants. In: Dioxins and Health, Including Other Persistent Organic Pollutants and Endocrine Disruptors, 3nd Edition (Schecter A, ed), John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. pp 171-192.
DeWitt JC and Dietert RR. 2012. Postnatal immune dysfunction and its impact on growth parameters. In: Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease (Preedy VR, ed), Springer, New York, NY. pp 741-755.
DeWitt JC and Luebke RW. 2010. Immunological Aging. In: Comprehensive Toxicology, 2nd Edition, Volume 5 (Lawrence D, ed), Elsevier Limited, Oxford, UK. pp 455-465.
Dietert RR and DeWitt J. 2010. Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT): The why, where and how of DIT testing. In: Immunotoxicity Testing: Methods and Protocols (Dietert RR, ed), Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ. 598:17-25.
Luebke RW, Beamer CA, Bowman C, DeWitt JC, Gowdy K, Johnson VJ, Shepherd DM, and Germolec DR. 2009. Immunotoxicology (developmental immunotoxicology section). In: General and Applied Toxicology, 3rd Edition (Marrs T, Ballantyne B, Syversen T, eds.), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK, pp 1561-1583.
Other Scholarly Contributions
DeWitt JC, Rockwell CE, and Bowman CC (eds). 2018. Immunotoxicity Testing: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology Series. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
DeWitt JC (ed). 2015. Toxicological Effects of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
Portier CJ et al. (90+ co-authors). 2016. Differences in the carcinogenic evaluation of glyphosate between the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 70:741-745.
DeWitt JC and Luebke RW. 2014. Immunological Aging. Online Reference Database Biomedical Science.
Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Lauby-Secretan B, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Guha N, Mattock H, and Straif K on behalf of the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group (DeWitt JC, Mechanisms Subgroup Member). 2014. Carcinogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid, tetrafluoroethylene, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,3-propane sultone. The Lancet Oncology. 15:924-925.
IARC. 2014 Perfluoro-octanoic acid, Tetrafluoroethylene, Dichloromethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,3-Propane sultone. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum (DeWitt JC, Mechanisms Subgroup Member). Monograph 110.
DeWitt JC and Dietert RR. 2011. Response to “Theoretical aspects of autism: Causes – a review” by Ratajczak, HV (Journal of Immunotoxicology 8:68-79, 2011). Journal of Immunotoxicology. 8:195-197.